After you view the DVD of Conscience and the Constitution, learn more here about the actions of the wartime Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), and its 2002 apology to the Heart Mountain resisters.
MIKE MASAOKA AUDIO INTERVIEW
Listen to the DVD to hear Masaoka’s comments on JACL informing, his memos to the government, test cases, the resisters, and his legacy.
- Read the April 6, 1942 memo to the WRA [82 MB pdf]
The handwritten notes exist on the original document in the National Archives, suggesting that they are written in the hand of the recipient of this memo, or by one of his staff.
- Read the January 14, 1943 memo to the WRA [38 MB pdf]
MIKE MASAOKA’S REBUTTAL TO CRITICS
Mike Masaoka’s closing peoration at the 1982 JACL National Convention in Los Angeles was first transcibed by editor Dwight Chuman and published on Feb. 17, 1983 in the Rafu Shimpo newspaper.
- Read the text of Mike Masaoka’s rebuttal to critics
- Background on JACL’s handling of the Tule Lake renunciants
- Role of civil rights attorney Wayne Collins
- History of Tule Lake Segregation Center and renunciants
THE LIM REPORT
What has come to be known as the Lim Report details the JACL’s role of cooperation and collaboration with government exclusion orders in 1942. It was prepared for the JACL’s Presidential Select Committee on JACL Resolution #7, submitted in 1990 by San Francisco attorney and researcher Deborah K. Lim. It is this report that Frank Emi references on the DVD (“The JACL Apologizes”) in his remarks to the 2002 JACL apology ceremony, where he challenges the organization to address the broader question of wartime collaboration even as the group was apologizing to Emi and others for its suppression of wartime resistance.
- Read the full “Lim Report” online at the PBS.org site
- Read “Report on JACL’s WW2 actions to be released,” by Frank Abe, April 2, 1990
- Read “Wartime JACL leaders collaborated,” by Frank Abe, June 7, 1990
Conscience and the Constitution closes with the tag, “In July 2000, the national Japanese American Citizens League voted to apologize for its suppression of wartime resistance. Several JACL old-timers walked out in protest.”
Two years later, on Saturday, May 11, 2002, about 300 people filled the gym at the San Francisco Japanese American Community and Cultural Center for the “Nisei Resisters of Conscience of World War II Recognition and Reconciliation Ceremony.”
What happened there is told in the DVD featurettte, “The JACL Apologizes.”
- Learn more about the event, read the full speeches presented by Floyd Mori, Frank Emi, and Yosh Kuromiya, and see the archived news coverage.