About the JACL

After you view the DVD of Conscience and the Constitution, learn more here about the actions of the wartime Japanese American Citizens League (JACL), and its 2002 apology to the Heart Mountain resisters.


DVD menu screen with Mike Masaoka
DVD menu screen for Masaoka interview

Listen to the DVD to hear Masaoka’s comments on JACL informing, his memos to the government, test cases, the resisters, and his legacy.


Mike Masaoka at 1982 JACL National Convention
Mike Masaoka at 1982 JACL National Convention

Mike Masaoka’s closing peoration at the 1982 JACL National Convention in Los Angeles was first transcibed by editor Dwight Chuman and published on Feb. 17, 1983 in the Rafu Shimpo newspaper.


book cover: The Lim Report
cover of The Lim Report

What has come to be known as the Lim Report details the JACL’s role of cooperation and collaboration with government exclusion orders in 1942. It was prepared for the JACL’s Presidential Select Committee on JACL Resolution #7, submitted in 1990 by San Francisco attorney and researcher Deborah K. Lim. It is this report that Frank Emi references on the DVD (“The JACL Apologizes”) in his remarks to the 2002 JACL apology ceremony, where he challenges the organization to address the broader question of wartime collaboration even as the group was apologizing to Emi and others for its suppression of wartime resistance.


Floyd Mori at JACL apology ceremony
Floyd Mori at JACL apology ceremony

Conscience and the Constitution closes with the tag, “In July 2000, the national Japanese American Citizens League voted to apologize for its suppression of wartime resistance. Several JACL old-timers walked out in protest.”

Two years later, on Saturday, May 11, 2002, about 300 people filled the gym at the San Francisco Japanese American Community and Cultural Center for the “Nisei Resisters of Conscience of World War II Recognition and Reconciliation Ceremony.”

What happened there is told in the DVD featurettte, “The JACL Apologizes.”

  • Learn more about the event, read the full speeches presented by Floyd Mori, Frank Emi, and Yosh Kuromiya, and see the archived news coverage.

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