Interactive timeline of events

[under construction]

To learn more about the events portrayed in We Hereby Refuse, page numbers in the book are keyed to the dates of key scenes, with links to supplementary material for further exploration.  For an overview of the  incarceration, please see the Densho introduction, and for a general timeline from immigration through incarceration to redress, see the Densho timeline.

I: Rumors and Lies / February 1942

Page # in book Date Action or event Links to learn more
9 Public officials statements – dates and places Statements on a webpage (HTML)
10 December 1941 JACL statements – dates and places
Add Masaoka “suicide battalions”
James Sakamoto to Tolan Committee

Tokie Slocum to Tolan Committee

27 January 5. 1942 Selective Service System changes I-A classification to IV-C Link to webpage
16 Feb. 19, 1942 President signs order to create military exclusion zones;
DeWitt and Bendetsen review the basis for exclusion
Link to webpage of EO9066 (URL)

“DeWitt to Bendetsen phone transcript” (PDF)

5-8 Feb. 21, 1942 Akutsu father arrested by FBI FBI report on Kiyonosuke Akutsu arrest

The Akutsu Home and shoe repair shop

12-15 Feb-May, 1942 Decision to join group fighting race-based suspensions;
Response to employer’s request for oath of loyalty to the State
Elissa Ouchida article excerpt (PDF)

Purcell letter (HTML & PDF)

18-20 Military curfew violated by Hiroshi and Min Yasui Link to Yasui story somewhere, maybe Densho Encyl (weblink)
2 April 8, 1942 Charged with disloyalty to state of California & suspension from job State Personnel Board suspension letter” (PDF)

State Personnel Board charges” (PDF)

21-23 March 2, 1942 Decision to waive legal rights and cooperate with expulsion Book excerpt by Mike Masaoka

Western Defense Command Public Proclamation #1 (HTML or PDF)

28 March 19, 1942 Akutsu father at King Street Station train Seattle Times photo (JPG)
23 April JACL urging compliance with expulsion Jap League Aids Exodus

Sakamoto Tolan Committee testimony excerpt (PDF)

Masaoka and Kido in front of American flag (JPG) get a date and source

II: Who Put Them In Charge? / April 1942

29-30 April XX, 1942 JACL meeting with Milton Eisenhower, followed by letter detailing policy recommendations to WRA Milton Eisenhower memoir excerpt (HTML)

Masaoka on policy for camps” (PDF)

33-35 May 1942 Compliance with exclusion order Densho (video clips) of Kashiwagi,

Jim Akutsu (Mr. Dolby story),

Gene Akutsu (it was Mother’s Day)

“The Endo Apartment”

32 May-June 1942 James Purcell seeks “perfect plaintiff” Questionnaire to employees?
40-42 summer 1942 Decision to stand for habeas corpus suit
Purcell recruits Endo for habeas corpus case
Purcell letter to Linzer?
38-39 May 1942 JACL sell-appointed leadership at Puyallup Assembly Center

Sakamoto assassination plot

Shosuke Sasaki on self-appointed leadership of JACL in Puyallup

Gene Akutsu on brother Jim’s clashes with James Sakamoto in Puyallup”

Shosuke Sasaki on being approached for the honor killing of James Sakamoto

Shosuke Sasaki interview excerpt on honor killing: Seattle Weekly (PDF)

Book excerpt from Hosokawa & Fiset (HTML)

47 June 20, 1942 Endo arrives at Tule Lake
45 Kashiwagi arrives at Tule Lake Hiroshi Kashiwagi on train ride to Tule Lake

Jim Tanimoto on arrival at Tule Lake

Densho Ency. Entries (weblink)

unseen July 12, 1942 Purcell files writ of habeas corpus for Endo Petition for writ of habeas corpus” (PDF)
47-48 July 20, 1942 Purcell District Court hearing on habeas corpus “Purcell District Court arguments” (PDF)
49 August 17, 1942 Akutsu arrives at Minidoka Densho Ency. Entries (weblink)
43 Aug. 1942 The WRA camps: Minidoka, Tule Lake
52 Nov. 17-25, 1942) JACL emergency meeting on Selective Service Pacific Citizen stories on Densho site (weblinks)
53 Dec. x, 1942 The Manzanar Revolt Article citation sent by Art
54 January x, 1943 JACL recommends segregation of troublemakers Masaoka autobiography excerpt (HTML)

Masaoka on segregation” (PDF)

55 JACL meeting with McCloy to seek draft Quote from book and from McCloy
56 January 1943 Leave Clearance Questionnaire: McCloy and Myer agree TBD could be Densho Ency. (NEED TO FIND THIS)
57-58 Registration fiasco at Tule Lake mess halls Hiroshi Kashiwagi on the refusal to register
61 Feb. 1943 JACL opposition to test cases and Civil Liberties League Masaoka-Yasui exchange of letters (PDF)
Civil Liberties League flyer (PDF)
61-62 Feb. 1943 Decision to answer “yes” to 27 and “no” to 28 Densho (video clip)
CWRIC testimony (HTML & PDF)
64 Feb. 1943 Block 4 Kibei resolution to refuse registration Translation by Takako Day (HTML or PDF from book)
65 Feb. 21, 1943 Block 42 arrests Jim Tanimoto on the arrests at Block 42
68 Late Feb/early March 1943 Men of Block 42 face a mock firing squad Jim Tanimoto on facing a mock firing squad
70 Feb. 1943 Kashiwagi refusal to register Quote from book or affidavit (HTML or PDF)
71 Senate calls for segregation; Myer decision on Tule Lake
72 Feb. 19, 1943 Endo answers yes-yes (no material available)
72 Sept. 23, 1943 Endo moved to Topaz Topaz Times article on Endo job (HMTL)
72 July 12, 1943 Endo case dismissed, Purcell appeals Purcell letter (PDF)
73-74 October 1943 Endo meets Glick, refuses to leave camp and moot case “Endo commitment to case” (PDF)

“Peter Irons on Purcell meeting with Endo and Glick” (PDF)

III: It’s the Country That’s Not Loyal to Us / 1943

75-77 Sept.  1943 Tule Lake made into Segregation Center; Jerome segregees arrive: Kai, Kuratomi, Yamane Yamane Densho interview (video clip)

“George Kuratomi & Singer Terada biographies”

“Tokio Yamane biography”
“Verne Austin biography”

78 Oct. 15 Farm truck accident; funeral; Negotiating Committee Hiroshi Kashiwagi on the farm truck accident and disturbances which followed
87 Oct. 23, 1943 Nao Akutsu writes to Eleanor Roosevelt Nao letter (PDF)
78 Oct. 23 Kashima funeral in outdoor stage in firebreak
79-80 Nov. 1 Dillon Myer visit and silent protest
81-84 Nov. 4 Night of the disturbance Yamane Densho interview (video clip)
85 Nov. 13 Col. Austin outdoor assembly, martial law declared
86 Dec. 1 Surrender of Kai and Kuratomi to Stockade
70 Refusal to register Densho (video clip)
88-89 Dec. 14, 1943 Akutsu father rejoins family; Jim doesn’t recognize him Jim  Akutsu on not recognizing his father after two years

IV. For the First Time, I Feel Good About Being Japanese / 1944

90 Jan. 20, 1944 Jan. 20, 19War Dept. reopens draft for the Nisei Link to webpage


91-92 Feb. 1944 Jim Akutsu meets with Min Yasui Jim Akutsu on draft advice from Min Yasui
94 Feb. 12, 1944 Mothers Society letter first draft by Min Yasui Link to webpage (HTML scan)
94-95 Feb. 20, 1944 Mothers Society letter rewritten as sent on this date Letter (PDF from Mira)
96 March 3, 1944 Fair Play Committee bulletin advocates draft resistance Link to webpage – Bulletin #3
unseen 1944 James Omura editorial urging any resistance to be organized Link to webpage – “Let Us Not Be Rash”
108 March 4, 1944 Eleanor Roosevelt reply “Eleanor Roosevelt reply” (PDF) courtesy of Mira Shimabukuro
96 March 10, 1944 Rocky Shimpo article on Fair Play Committee stand Link to webpage – “HM Resistance Has Authorities Stumped”
108 April 26, 1944 Gene Akutsu among 6 of first 57 called who refuse to report Gene Akutsu on his decision to refuse draft


109 April 29, 1944 Gene arrested at barrack by U.S. Marshal See video clip above
116 May 8, 1944 Supreme Court accepts Endo case for review
98 Nov. 5, 1943- Aug. 24, 1944 The Stockade
99 June 10, 1944 Singer Terada sit-down strike at Internal Security office
100 July 1, 1944 Congress adopts and president signs Denationalization Act Denationalization Act of 1944
101 July 11, 1944 Ernest Besig of ACLU visits Kuratomi in Stockade
101 July 19, 1944 Stockade hunger strike
110 July 20, 1944 Jim Akutsu decision to refuse his draft order and arrested Densho (video clip)
CWRIC testimony (HTML & PDF)“Jim Akutsu 1944 postdated draft letter” (PDF)
102 Aug. 11, 1944 Singer Terada leads crash of gate to Stockade Photo (JPG)
Army report (PDF)
104 Aug. 12, 1944 Inaugural ceremony of Sokoku Kenkyu Seinen Dan
103 August 22, 1944 Wayne Collins threatens suit, Stockade closed Book excerpt from Years of Infamy (HTML)
103 August 24, 1944 Stockade closed and site razed
111 Sept. 6, 1944 Jim and Gene arraignment in U.S District Court of Idaho and assignment of counsel. Court documents (PDF)
112-114 Sept. 13, 1944 Minidoka trials for draft resisters Densho (video clip)

Book excerpt, Free to Die For Their Country by Eric Muller  (HTML)

114 Oct. 2, 1944 Jim and Gene sentencing by Judge Clark Court documents (PDF)
104-107 October 3, 1944 WRA grants the Sokuji Kikoku Hoshi-dan a permit for office space, an apartment at Block 5408-D

Exercising starts in camp

115 Oct. 6, 1944 Jim and Gene enter McNeil Island penitentiary Gene Akutsu on revisiting McNeil Island after 60 years

CWRIC testimony (HTML & PDF)

117-119 October 11-12, 1944 Purcell argues writ before Supreme Court Purcell letter (PDF)
“Irons on Purcell argument to Supreme Court” (PDF)
122-127 Decision to renounce his citizenship; decision by others Hiroshi Kashiwagi on family decision to renounce

Hiroshi Kashiwagi on his immediate regret over renouncing”

120 December 17, 1944 WRA announces camps to be closed in one year WRA bulletin (PDF)
120 December 18, 1944 Supreme Court announces decision to end exclusion of loyal citizens in camps Densho Encyclopedia entry, “Ex parte Mitsuye Endo (1944)

Ex parte Mitsuye Endo (1944) | Densho Encyclopedia

“Supreme Court ruling on ex parte Endo

“Peter Irons on Supreme Court ruling” (PDF)

Purcell telegram on SC ruling” (PDF)

122 December 27, 1944 Predawn arrests of 70 Hokoku-Hoshi-dan leaders
124 February 1945 Kashiwagi mitigation hearing on renunciation
128 May 24, 1945 Endo leaves Topaz for Chicago “Postcard in Endo office at Topaz” (JPG)
126 July 1945 Wayne Collins meets with renunciants and drafts letter to AG Hiroshi Kashiwagi on meeting Wayne Collins
126 Sept., 1945 Mass meeting to form TL Defense Committee and hire Collins
127 Nov. 13?, 1945 Wayne Collins stops deportations at Fort Mason
129 March 7, 1946 Kashiwagi family leaves Tule Lake for Sacramento

V: No Going Home / 1946

130 March 1946 JACL National Convention, Denver Book excerpt (HTML)
“Cosmopolitan Hotel postcard” (JPG)
140 Sept. 4, 1946 Endo attends State Personnel Board hearing on reinstatement. In their favor and many returned to work.


Endo letter to Purcell (PDF)
133-135 April 3, 1947 Jim and Gene released from McNeil Island, return to Seattle Jim Akutsu on his postwar friendship with novelist John Okada

On kachigumi, the delusion of Japanese victory in the war

On Shindo Renmei, the cult of Japanese victory

136-137 September 25, 1947 Nao Akutsu ostracized at church, dies at Harborview Hospital Jim Akutsu on his mother’s ostracism and death

“Northwest Times article on Nao Akutsu’s death” (JPG)

141 1959 Kashiwagi regains citizenship
139 1981 Akutsu testifies to Commission on Wartime Relocation and Interment of Civilians “Jim Akutsu 11981 CWRIC testimony” (PDF)
unseen 1981 Kashiwagi testifies to Commission on Wartime Relocation and Interment of Civilians CWRIC testimony (PDF)
Jim Akutsu passes away “Jim Akutsu obituary”
Mitsuye Endo passes away Mitsuye Endo obituary
Hiroshi Kashiwagi passes away Hiroshi Kashiwagi obituary
142 Decision to stand with others targeted by government I

The history and literature of Japanese American resistance to wartime incarceration

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